28 May 2014

NT Eschatology—Letters 15

This is our third post about the book (letter) of The Revelation. There’s so much in this post but we’ll try not to make it too long.

Then I was given a measuring rod, which was like a pole. And I was told, “Get up and measure G‑d’s temple, the altar, and those who worship there. But don’t measure the court outside the temple. Leave that out, because it has been given to the nations, and they will trample the holy city underfoot for forty-two months.

We point this passage out because it seems that people either don’t know it’s in there or they twist it to be something else.

Note here that John was told to measure “G‑d’s temple, the altar, and those who worship there.” Of course, the question that comes rushing to the fore is, “Which temple?” Some think this is the temple of God in “heaven,” but that can’t be right. Verse two states that John’s not to measure the outside temple court because it’s been “given to the nations, and they will trample the holy city underfoot.” That’s not a picture of G‑d’s space. It has to be a Temple here, in our space.

Other’s believe that it’s a rebuilt temple. They hold to this view for a couple of reasons, the primary one is they believe Revelation was written after the Second Temple was destroyed by the Romans. Therefore, the temple mentioned above is a rebuilt Temple. What I find fascinating about this view is that everything that the Second Temple was needs to be copied for the rebuilt temple — the size, the decoration, the altar, the sacrifices, the tools, the clothes, etc. In other words, this supposed third temple has to be an exact replica of the Second Temple, not only in the minutest details, but also in function. The question that must be asked here is, “Why?” This supposed third temple not only looks like the Second Temple, but the services must be ancient, too. That is, everything must be exactly like it was when Jesus walked the earth. Again, “Why?”

The answer is because everything about this letter — and, as we’ve seen, all of the eschatology of the New Testament — points to the situation of the first century followers of Jesus when the Second Temple was still standing. So, the logic runs something like this: The Second Temple (i.e., the temple of Jesus’ and the apostles time) was supposedly destroyed before Revelation was written. But Revelation paints a picture that looks exactly like the situation of the first century and the war between the Jews and the Romans. Therefore, for Revelation to be about our time and our situation, there must be a new Israel, a new temple, and a new Roman empire so that warnings make sense.

Now, let’s think about this for a moment.

This “futurist” view of Revelation (and by that I mean those who hold to this view see Revelation dealing with, not first century issues but, our issues or our time) needs to reconstruct the first century situation to have it work. That’s why you have many, many people blindly supporting Israel. In their eyes, Israel can do no wrong.


Because those who espouse this view must have Jewish people return to the land; rebuild the temple (the supposed third temple), re-establish the priesthood, and reconstitute the Old Covenant Jewish sacrificial system. Therefore, whatever Israel has to do to fulfill this view is acceptable.


So that the Jews are firmly established in the land of Israel. So that everything will be like it was in the “good ol’ days” of Israel when Jesus walked the earth.

Meanwhile, a new Roman Empire must be formed. It’s sole purpose is to rule the “world” again, like it’s first century ancestor. When it’s a super power once more, it will turn it’s eyes to Israel so that the...wait for it… war with the Jews can happen again!

That is, the whole futurists paradigm is about repeating the events of the first Jewish / Roman war! Now, they may not want to admit that, but that is exactly what this theology teaches.

But, there’s an alternative. One that doesn’t require us having to jump through all of these hoops. It’s simply this: John was told to measure the temple that was still standing. The Second Temple. The one Jesus talked about. The ones the disciples asked about. As we noted before, if we keep the Jewish / Roman war as a viable option for the fulfillment of the New Testament’s eschatology, then all of these problems fall away.

This view is clearly seen in the follow verses.

“And I will allow my two witnesses to prophesy for one thousand two hundred sixty days, wearing mourning clothes. These are the two olive trees and the two lampstands that stand before the Lord of the earth. If anyone wants to hurt them, fire comes out of their mouth and burns up their enemies. So if anyone wants to hurt them, they have to be killed in this way. They have the power to close up the sky so that no rain will fall for as long as they prophesy. They also have power over the waters, to turn them into blood, and to strike the earth with any plague, as often as they wish.

“When they have finished their witnessing, the beast that comes up from the abyss will make war on them, gain victory over them, and kill them. Their dead bodies will lie on the street of the great city that is spiritually called Sodom and Egypt, where also their Lord was crucified.

Here we are introduced to the “two witnesses.” Like the speculation about which temple John was told to go measure, there have been a lot of conjectures about the “two witnesses.” But, once again, the text offers the best interpretation.

It’s said that these two before the “Lord of the earth.” They’ve been given the “power to close up the sky” so it won’t rain and they have “power over the water, to turn them into blood, and to strike the earth with any plague.” Who does this sound like? Who could that possibly be?

Elijah and Moses.

Elijah prophesied that there wouldn’t be “dew nor rain” until he said so (1 Kings 17.1; CEB). And the whole story of the Exodus has Moses turning the water to blood and striking the earth with different plagues (Exodus 7ff). Furthermore, it was Elijah and Moses who appeared to Jesus on the “Mount of Transfiguration.” There were discussing “his departure, which he would achieve in Jerusalem (Luke 9.28-36; CEB).

“Wait a minute,” I hear someone objecting. “Elijah and Moses weren’t prophesying in the streets of Jerusalem before or during the Jewish / Roman war.”

Are we sure about that?

Remember, when we started this series we talked about “apocalyptic” language? We noted that it’s more like poetic language — it uses images to represent something else. The question we want to ask here is, what would the images of “Elijah and Moses” represent?

The Law and the Prophets.

And that was exactly what was “read aloud every Sabbath in every synagogue” (Acts 15.21; CEB). In Luke 16, Jesus told a story about the “rich man and Lazarus.” When Jesus told his story about the rich man and Lazarus, the rich man was in a place of torment and wanted “Abraham” to send messengers to his family to warn them. This is the end of the conversation between Abraham and the rich man:

Abraham replied, “They have Moses and the Prophets. They must listen to them.” The rich man said, “No, Father Abraham! But if someone from the dead goes to them, they will change their hearts and lives.” Abraham said “If they don’t listen to Moses and the Prophets, then neither will they be persuaded if someone rises from the dead.”

That story was told to a group of Pharisees, the ones who saw themselves as better than others around them. The ones who had colluded with the Roman Empire at the expense of their people. The ones who brought the false charges against Jesus and delivered him over to the Romans for his crucifixion.

And that last point ties into Revelation 11.8, “Their dead bodies (i.e., the Law and Prophets) will lie on the street of the great city that is spiritually called Sodom and Egypt, where also their Lord was crucified.”

Here we see the depths to which Jerusalem had fallen. It’s spiritual state was likened to “Sodom and Egypt.” Contrary to the opinions of some, the sin of Sodom was not homosexuality. The sins of Sodom were, “pride, gluttony, and laziness, while the poor and needy suffered outside her door” (Ezekiel 16.49; NLT). And, as we know, the sin of Egypt was they were the great slave master to Israel when she was an infant. They were the ones who were the “world power” at the time. They kept Israel enslaved so they could continue their social separation and power.

And there’s no mistaking that this is Jerusalem — it’s the place “where also their Lord was crucified.” Again, this points to the city and Temple of Jesus’ day. Showing once more that Revelation 13, and the entire letter, was written before and was about the fall of the city and Temple during the Jewish / Roman war.

Click here for the next post in the series where we finish our look at the passages from The Revelation.

In the Love of the Three in One,

Br. Jack+, LC

25 May 2014

Weekly Gospel Reflection — 25 May 2014

“If you love me, you will keep my commandments. I will ask the Father, and he will send another Companion, who will be with you forever. This Companion is the Spirit of Truth, whom the world can’t receive because it neither sees him nor recognizes him. You know him, because he lives with you and will be with you.

“I won’t leave you as orphans. I will come to you. Soon the world will no longer see me, but you will see me. Because I live, you will live too. On that day you will know that I am in my Father, you are in me, and I am in you. Whoever has my commandments and keeps them loves me. Whoever loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love them and reveal myself to them.”

I can’t help but think of my time with the YWCA when I hear the word advocate. For those of you who don’t know, my wife and I worked there for a few years — me as the Network Administrator and her as the S.A.N.E. Coordinator. S.A.N.E. stands for, “Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner.” She and the other nurses would get called in when someone was raped. Those nurses would do the forensic examination, collect the evidence, and pass it on to the police. Sometimes, they would even have to testify in court as the expert witness.

One of the things that stood out to me was that each victim was assigned an advocate. Someone from the “Y” would be sent to be with the victim, to comfort, to listen, to plead her case to those around her (“her” because most victims of rape, sexual assault, and domestic violence are female). Those advocates and nurses are some of the strongest people I’ve ever had the privilege of knowing. The passion they have for justice, for caring for the victim, is unparalleled in my experience. Day or night, 24/7/365, those people were on the ready to stand for those who just don’t have the strength to do it anymore.

The passage today is still situated in the upper room. As we noted last week, it’s one of the most personal settings contained in the Gospels. Here, Jesus promises that he would send a “Companion” or “Comforter” to his hurting followers. In John’s telling of this story, the Companion, the Holy Spirit, is breathed into the disciples in the upper room (John 20.22).

That’s such a powerful image. Once more, John takes us back to Genesis. There, after Yahweh finished creating humanity, it says Yahweh “blew life’s breath into [the human’s] nostrils. The human came to life” (Genesis 2.7; CEB). In the New Creation, we, too, are given the breath of G‑d, the Holy Spirit.

But what does that mean?

The word used here the CEB translated as “Companion” is παράκλητος (paraklētos) and means “an advocate, one who pleads the cause of another.” In other words, Jesus sends an advocate. In this context, the Spirit’s role is to stand for those who can’t stand for themselves. To plead their case to anyone who will listen.

That’s an interesting point given that the Companion is also the breath of G‑d, the essence of G‑d. In using the word παράκλητος we see into the depth of G‑d. We see that G‑d is greatly concerned (as is clearly communicated throughout scripture) with those who are victims, those who need help, those who have been kicked to the curb by the powerful or those seeking power. We could say the Spirit of G‑d — the life-force of those who follow The Way of Jesus — is the advocate of those still being victimized by the powerful, whether human, non-human, or the earth itself.

Not only does the Companion empower those who follow The Way of Jesus, but Jesus himself promised to accompany those followers on their journeys. Notice he said that he wouldn’t leave them as orphans. Again, a powerful image because G‑d is concerned about the orphans, i.e., a child whose parents have died. This shows us another image of G‑d — Parent.

We know that Jesus has referred to G‑d as “Father” throughout the stories, but for someone to be called an “orphan” both parents must be dead or missing. Here, Jesus seems to indicate that he will fulfill the role of both “father” and “mother.” As St. Paul said, “We (i.e., humanity) are [G‑d’s] offspring” (Acts 17.28; CEB).

Not only that, but Jesus said when he appears to the disciples after his death and resurrection, they will know he’s “in [the] Father” and “[they] are in me” and he is in them. That means that G‑d is in them and they are in G‑d. (By the way, I think that’s how the Trinity works, too.) Again, St. Paul said, “In G‑d we live, move, and exist” (Acts 17.28; CEB). We are in Christ. Christ is in G‑d. We are, therefore, in G‑d. But Christ is also in us. Therefore, G‑d is within us, too. And energizing all of that is the Companion, the Advocate, the very life-force of G‑d.

I remember the first time I set foot in a church. I was in grade school. My neighbor and friend invited me to go with him. I remember thinking that this Jesus was the first person who had ever chosen me for something. That is, I wasn’t just the leftovers from a playground game of baseball. I wasn’t “stuck” with Jesus. He selected me. He chose me. He wanted to be with me. For the first time in my life, I felt special.

I think that’s what Jesus is trying to get across to his followers then and to his followers now. Whoever has his commandments and follows them — love G‑d with everything we have, love our neighbors like we love ourselves, love our enemies, too, and take care of the outcasts, the poor, the orphans and widows — not just the “church folk” but whoever, is loved by G‑d. G‑d has not abandoned us. The Companion, the very life-energy of G‑d, is breathed into us and we are made one with G‑d.

And that, my friends, is very comforting indeed.

In the Love of the Three in One,

Br. Jack+, LC

21 May 2014

NT Eschatology—Letters 14

We’re continuing our look at the eschatology of the New Testament (we started way back here). Last time we started The Revelation of John. We’re continuing that letter here.

When he opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar those who had been slaughtered on account of the word of G‑d and the witness they had given. They cried out with a loud voice, “Holy and true Master, how long will you wait before you pass judgment? How long before you require justice for our blood, which was shed by those who live on earth?” Each of them was given a white robe, and they were told to rest a little longer, until their fellow servants and brothers and sisters — who were about to be killed as they were — were finished.

This passage should strike a chord with us. We’ve seen something about it before. In our second post in the Gospel section of this series, we saw how Jesus blasted the Religious Opposition of his day. He told them,

I am sending you prophets and wise men and teachers of religious law. But you will kill some by crucifixion, and you will flog others with whips in your synagogues, chasing them from city to city. As a result, you will be held responsible for the murder of all godly people of all time — from the murder of righteous Abel to the murder of Zechariah son of Berekiah, whom you killed in the Temple between the sanctuary and the altar. I tell you the truth, this judgment will fall on this very generation (Matthew 23.34-36; NLT; emphasis added).

Jesus told the Religious Opposition of his day that they and their generation would be “held responsible for all the murder of all godly people of all time.” In the Revelation, John sees a vision of godly people wondering when their deaths will be avenged. The response is they must wait until the rest of the martyr’s are killed. Then they will all be avenged. But upon whom would the vengeance be sought? Jesus said that it would befall the people of his generation.

The same thing is found later on in the Revelation. In chapter 18, we have the “fall of Babylon.” In verses 20 and 24, it states,

Rejoice over her, heaven — you saints, apostles, and prophets — because G‑d has condemned her as she condemned you...the blood of prophets, of saints, and of all who have been slaughtered on the earth was found among you.

Here we see that “Babylon” has been condemned because in here was found “the blood of prophets, of saints, and of all who have been slaughtered on the earth.” Therefore, she was condemned.

If there’s any question, Jesus sealed the fate in Luke’s gospel. Jesus said, “It’s impossible for a prophet to be killed outside of Jerusalem” (Luke 13.33; CEB).

There is little doubt. The Revelation of John is about the Jewish / Roman War. Being (at least) a prophet (and so much more), Jesus spoke to his generation that they will held accountable for the deaths of the prophets and saints that were sent to Jerusalem to warn her about changing her ways. If she refused, she would be “judged” and “condemned.” Again, being a Jewish apocalyptic prophet, Jesus saw this judgment and condemnation as an act of Yahweh upon Israel.

Click here for the next post in this series where we look at a couple of other passages from The Revelation.

In the Love of the Three in One,

Br. Jack+, LC

18 May 2014

Weekly Gospel Reflection — 18 May 2014

“Don’t be troubled. Trust in [G‑d]. Trust also in me. My Father’s house has room to spare. If that weren’t the case, would I have told you that I’m going to prepare a place for you? When I go to prepare a place for you, I will return and take you to be with me so that where I am you will be too. You know the way to the place I’m going.”

Thomas asked, “Lord, we don’t know where you are going. How can we know the way?”

Jesus answered, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me. If you have really known me, you will also know the Father. From now on you know him and have seen him.”

Philip said, “Lord, show us the Father; that will be enough for us.”

Jesus replied, “Don’t you know me, Philip, even after I have been with you all this time? Whoever has seen me has seen the Father. How can you say, ‘Show us the Father’? Don’t you believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? The words I have spoken to you I don’t speak on my own. The Father who dwells in me does his works. Trust me when I say that I am in the Father and the Father is in me, or at least believe on account of the works themselves. I assure you that whoever believes in me will do the works that I do. They will do even greater works than these because I am going to the Father. I will do whatever you ask for in my name, so that the Father can be glorified in the Son. When you ask me for anything in my name, I will do it.

The setting of this passage is very intimate. I mean, we shouldn’t be eavesdropping kind of intimate. In the preceding chapters, Jesus and the disciples had the “Last Supper,” although, it wasn’t called that yet. It was a very solemn meal. Jesus told them he was going to die soon. He said one of them would betray him. Judas left the group to do that very thing. And now, Jesus tries to comfort their heavy hearts and troubled minds.

He tells them that he’s preparing a place for them. Most of us have understood this to be “heaven.” I don’t think that’s quite right. “Heaven,” in biblical terms, is another way of saying “paradise” (Luke 23.32-33; 39-43). That is, “heaven” is the waiting place before the fully restored New Creation where humanity will live in resurrected bodies.

In other words, Jesus isn’t talking about the waiting place. He’s talking about the New Creation. He’s telling them that he’s preparing the final place. The place when G‑d’s space and our space become one space (Revelation 21-22). It’s the New Creation that has all of the space. That’s what’s preparing.

Next, notice that Jesus just doesn’t say he’s coming to take them to this place. He tells them that they know the way to that place. So Jesus is going to accompany them along the way. They won’t bypass the way. They’ll still have to travel along the way.

When Thomas asks about the way, Jesus tells him that he’s the way. Jesus isn’t saying that he’s a path or a trail. He’s saying that he embodies The Way. His very life — and, yes, his death — are The Way. He’s not talking about belief alone; about putting a check mark in a box. He’s talking about action. Going The Way of Jesus, living The Way of Jesus, being The Way of Jesus is about action. It’s about doing, living, being. Belief is important. But belief without action is worthless (James 2.20-26).

Next comes the infamous “I’m the only way to heaven” passage. The one church-folk have been beating people with for quite a while (at least in my neck of the woods).

And you know what? I think they may be right. But not in the way one might think. Let me explain what I mean. I don’t know if I’m outside of orthodoxy or not (and I don’t really care one way or the other), but my thoughts run something like this:

  • The resurrection of Jesus changed history. It was the hinge or turning point for all creation. As Paul said, “This message (the gospel) has been preached throughout all creation under heaven” (Colossians 1.23; CEB).
  • The life, death, and resurrection of Jesus didn’t just make it possible for all humanity to be in covenant relationship with G‑d, it actually put all people in that relationship. Paul again, “[G‑d] reconciled all things to [G‑dself] through [Jesus] — whether things on earth or in the heavens. He brought peace through the blood of his cross” (Colossians 1.20; CEB).
  • Therefore, because of Jesus, all humanity has now been reconciled to G‑d. Paul once more, “G‑d was reconciling the world to [G‑dself] through Christ, by not counting people’s sins against them” (2 Corinthians 5.19; CEB).

So, Jesus is the only way to the Father-Mother. But that way already includes everyone. Instead of fighting about who’s in and who’s out, we need to see each other as our siblings (Acts 17.28; cf. Ephesians 2.14-16; Ephesians 4.6).

And that last part ties in to my final point. Philip asked Jesus to show him the Father-Mother. Jesus replied, “Whoever has seen me has seen the Father-Mother.” This has been my point for a while now — the people of Jesus’ time, his fellow Jews, misunderstood G‑d. They had the wrong picture. That’s Philip’s point. His understanding of G‑d doesn’t line up with Jesus. Jesus’ response exposed that. He is what G‑d’s really like. If you want to know what G‑d is like, look to Jesus. In other words, G‑d isn’t hidden. As Paul said, “G‑d made the nations so they would seek him, perhaps even reach out to him and find him. In fact, G‑d isn’t far away from any of us. In G‑d we live, move, and exist” (Acts 17.27-28).

But this revelation about G‑d doesn’t stop there. There’s something else going on. Philip didn’t recognize G‑d when G‑d was right in front of him. How many of us have missed G‑d because we were expecting G‑d to be or act or look a certain way? We build up a certain view of G‑d in our mind but G‑d is so much more than that image. To be quite blunt, what we think is G‑d is really an idol.

In the Lindisfarne Community, our prayer is, “to be as Christ to those we meet; to find Christ within them.” This really changed my life. It made me stop and look at each person differently. To look past my own prejudices and realize that “We’re all [G‑d’s] offspring” (Acts 17.28).

The reason we can’t find G‑d in the world is because we’re not looking. That is, we look, but we don’t really see or understand (Matthew 13.13). We have to move past our preconceived ideas of what G‑d looks like, of what G‑d sounds like. We have to look past the falseness, the things that are broken to the light of G‑d within each person. When we do that, we’ll start to see G‑d in each other. We’ll see that G‑d is in our Mothers. Our sisters. Our brothers. Our fathers. G‑d is in our neighbors. Our friends. Our co-workers. G‑d is in the person of color. In those of different religious traditions. And those who have no religion. G‑d is in the Catholic. In the Orthodox. In the Protestant. In the Muslim. In the Buddhist. In the Jew. In the Christian. G‑d is in our children. G‑d is in our pets. In our gardens and forests. In our oceans. All creation is a picture of G‑d. We just need eyes to see. And ears to hear.

In the Love of the Three in One,

Br. Jack+, LC

14 May 2014

NT Eschatology—Letters 13

Although we could look at the other letters (1 and 2 Peter, Jude, the other Gospels, etc.), we’re going to look at the last book of the Bible, the book of Revelation. This is an incredible book. And a very hard book to discern, especially if one doesn’t have a good grasp of the Hebrew Scriptures.

But, we’re aren’t going into a detailed study of the entire book (maybe another series). Instead, we’re going to look at just a few key passages. We’ll begin with the opening verses.

A revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must soon take place. Christ made it known by sending it through his angel to his servant John, who bore witness to the word of God and to the witness of Jesus Christ, including all that John saw. Favored is the one who reads the words of this prophecy out loud, and favored are those who listen to it being read, and keep what is written in it, for the time is near.

John wrote that this book, this letter, is a “revelation of Jesus Christ.” That is, it’s a revealing letter. It’s not one that’s supposed to be hard to figure out. John’s intention is to reveal, to uncover, to expose, to show us Jesus the Christ — not make him more obscure. The things he’s revealing are given to him by God. And note, those things “must soon take place.” Let that sink in. John wrote that the things in this letter, the things in this book, the things in this revealing...





Furthermore, and just so we don’t miss it, John said that things he wrote about would “soon take place” because “the time [was] near” when he wrote them. Remember, we saw that his first letter was written after this letter and in it he wrote that he and his contemporaries were living in the “last hour.”

Let’s think about this for a moment.

John stated he received this revealing “from God” specifically because the things he saw would “soon take place” for “the time [was] near.”

There’s no misunderstanding that.

And yet…

For years now we’ve been at the mercy of people who tell us that “John really didn’t mean ‘soon’.” That the things John wrote about aren’t for the original recipients of this letter but they’re really for us, thousands of years after John wrote this. The obvious question is,

“How does ‘thousands of years’ equate to ‘soon’?”

The obvious answer is,

“It doesn’t.”

Again, it’s odd that most of the people who espouse this type of view — that John can’t actually mean what he said — are the same people who hold to a “literal” interpretation of the Bible. As has been seen by many, many other people, the “literal” interpretation is only used when it’s something that people already believe. That is, some people come to the text with a belief system already in place and read that into the text. This is called eisegesis. When one reads something that doesn’t line up with one’s belief system, the text must be twisted to mean something else altogether and the “literal” interpretation goes out the window.


If we take the same approach we have throughout this series, of putting ourselves in the audience of the original recipients, we would read those words from John and take them “literally.” He meant exactly what he wrote. The events he wrote about “must soon take place” from when the letter was written because the “time [was] near.”

This leads one quite naturally to ask, “What events could possibly have taken place within a short time frame that would fulfill this time restraint?”

And that one question brings into question pretty much every prophecy book that has been produced in my lifetime. With that question we have effectively moved from the theoretical and speculative and, quite frankly, ridiculous to the very solid ground of the exegete.

With that question, we have to figure out when the letter was written. Some maintain that it was very late in the first century, roughly 95-96 CE, during the reign of the Emperor Domitian.

While we won’t get into the reasons for this dating here, we still need to ask the question, “What events could possibly have taken place within a short time frame that would fulfill this time restraint?” The surprising answer is absolutely nothing. There’s nothing as grand as the events poetically described in the Revelation. Rome is still in power. And growing!

Since the fall of Jerusalem in 70 CE, a full 30 years prior to this letter, nothing’s really going on for the Jews, either. Their last revolt against Rome comes in 135 CE, about 40 years from the dating of this letter.

And, nothing is really going on for the Christians. I mean, they’re still being persecuted under Domitian’s reign. But if the Revelation is about that struggle, and Yahweh’s rescue and overthrow of Rome, then it’s a long way off. Rome didn’t “fall” until 4 September 476. 380 years doesn’t come close to meaning “must soon take place” because the “time is near.” 380 years is not near to when this letter was supposedly written.

Furthermore, what’s amazing about all of this is that almost everyone who holds to this date for the Revelation believe that it’s written for our time! That is, it’s not meant for the original audience!


There’s another date that’s been tossed around for the Revelation. Yep. You guessed it. A lot of people hold the position that the Revelation was written before Jerusalem fell. The date is placed in the 60’s CE. There are a lot of reasons for this and most of them are contained within the letter itself. But, again, we won’t get into all that. If the earlier date is accepted, then the most natural fulfillment of the poetic imagery from the letter is the Jewish / Roman War that started in 66 CE. It fits within the timeframe, the scope, the themes, and the imagery very well.

Anyway, we’ll look at some more passage from this fascinating letter next time.

Click here for the next post in this series.

In the Love of the Three in One,

Br. Jack+, LC